On this day in 2011, Idriss Deby, the president of Chad, was re-elected for his fourth term with eighty-nine percent of the vote and a sixty-four percent voter turnout. Deby seized power in a military coup over twenty years before and changed Chad's constitution in 2004 to get rid of the two-term limit for presidents. Deby had also faced two attempted coups in recent history.

In 1773, The English Parliament passed the Tea Act, which taxed all tea in the U.S. colonies.

In 1869, The United States’ first transcontinental railroad was completed with a ceremony in Promontory Summit, Utah.

In 1872, Victoria Woodhull became the first woman nominated for the U.S. presidency.

In 1908, The first Mother's Day observance took place during a church service in Grafton, West Virginia.

In 1940, Winston Churchill succeeded Neville Chamberlain as British prime minister.

In 1986, Navy Lt. Commander Donnie Cochran became the first black pilot to fly with the Blue Angels team.

In 1994, Nelson Mandela was sworn in as South Africa’s first black president.

In 2010, Iconic American singer Lena Horne passed away at the age of ninety-two. Horne, a prominent player during the civil rights era, became known as the first African-American sex-symbol and actively fought against racial discrimination during her singing and acting career, which lasted over sixty years.